Bulgarian Journal of Psychiatry, 2023; 8(4):22-32

Adaptation of the Short Dark Tetrad Scale (psychopathy, narcissism, machiavellianism and sadism) in Bulgarian population

Margarita Bakracheva, Milen Zamfirov
Sofia University “Sv. Kliment Ohridski”

Abstract. This article presents the results of the adaptation of the Short Dark Tetrad (SD4) Scale (Paulhus et al., 2021), measuring the traits of narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and sadism. The presented results highlight the specific overlap and discriminability of the “dark” personality traits. Differences in expression by gender, age, education and subjective perception of income аrе reported for the four generated profiles. There is complete overlap for the trait special (narcissism), with some reduction for the factors cruel (sadism) and crafty (Machiavellianism). The fourth profile is mixed with items from psychopathy-sadism and referred to as unrestrained-cruel (psychopathy). This replicates data reported in conducted research on the place of narcissism as the “lightest” and preferred among the dark traits, as well as the cultural specificity in using the scale including in cultures defined as W.E.I.R.D. (Western, Educated, Intellectual, Rich, Democratic). Future research and practical uses of the scale for diagnostic and prognostic purposes with youth and adults are outlined.

Key words: Dark Tetrad, narcissism, psychopathy, sadism, Machiavellianism

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